Martin Seligman's multidimensional theory of psychological well-being, PERMA (positive emotions, engagement, relationships, meaning, and accomplishment), was empirically tested on a sample of Australian male students (age 13-18). Researchers selected a subset of theoretically relevant items from an extensive well-being assessment. Four of the fiver PERMA elements emerged from a factor analysis, along with two ill-being factors.
This article presents the development and validation of two new measures of psychological well-being: the Comprehensive Inventory of Thriving (CIT) and the Brief Inventory of Thriving (BIT). These measures were developed to measure a broad range of psychological well-being constructs and represent a holistic view of positive functioning, as well as to predict important health outcomes.
Positive psychological well-being, especially optimism, protects against the incidence, and somewhat against the progression, of cardiovascular disease through a broad array of mechanisms, according to this extensive literature review.